Go to the first selection at this link and click on "Listen".

This link is to a YouTube recording of a performance:

THE MARTYR listening file
Go to the first selection at this link and click on "Listen".


Harmony examines the structure and relationship between vertical combinations of musical tones an their succession. Counterpoint examines the structure and relationship between horizontal combinations of musical tones (melody) and their succession.
Therefore, harmonic progression establishes tonality vertically; melodic progression establishes tonality horizontally.

In the major and minor key systems, tonic, subdominant, and dominant scale degrees are primary tones or tonal notes because the ear perceives them as most effective in establishing a tonal center.

Primary triads occur on the tonic, subdominant, and dominant scale degrees.
Secondary triads occur on the supertonic, mediant, submediant, and leading tone/subtonic.

There are four traditional voices or parts used in the study of harmony. They are notated on the grand staff. The ranges are as follows:
➢ Soprano: uses treble clef with a normal range of middle “C” to “A” above the staff.
➢ Alto: uses treble clef with a normal range of “G” below middle “C” to 4th line “D”.
➢ Tenor: uses bass clef with a normal range of 2nd space “C” to “A” above the staff.
➢ Bass: uses bass clef with a normal range of “F” below the staff to “D” above the staff.


This term applies to all four voices. Each voice should stand alone as a melody. The Bass voice does not always follow melody guidelines as closely as the other voices because it supplies the harmonic foundation.

Conjunct motion occurs when one pitch of a melody moves by step to another pitch. Disjunct motion occurs when one pitch of a melody skips or leaps to another pitch.

Disjunct motion greater than a 5th may be followed by any of the following:
➢ Conjunct motion in the opposite direction.
➢ Disjunct motion in the opposite direction.
➢ Conjunct motion in the same direction.
➢ Disjunct motion in the same direction.
(Two consecutive moves in the same direction which form a compound interval are forbidden. Melodies usually have a maximum range of an octave.)
➢ Augmented intervals are forbidden
➢ Compound intervals are forbidden
➢ Major sevenths are forbidden
➢ Minor sevenths must be followed by conjunct motion in the opposite direction.
➢ Diminished intervals should be followed by conjunct motion in the opposite direction.

Any number of stable tones may follow one another, but their overuse will emphasize the tonic traid.

No more than two tendency tones may occur in succession.

When one active tone is followed by another which is more than a third away the first active tone is disregarded.

Then two active tones surround a stable tone, that stable tone may then follow, or the latter active tone may be considered for movement, or another active tone may follow.

When employing broken chords, scale degree activity may not apply.

A phrase should convey a definite feeling of beginning and ending (repose). Repose is accomplished by melodic and/or harmonic cessation, called a cadence. Two phrases form a period; the first called an antecedent phrase, and the second called a consequent phrase. When there is similarity between the two phrases, they are parallel. When there is no similarity between the two phrases, they are contrasting.

Rhythms employed in the study of harmony appear in the following order of frequency:
1. Regular rhythm
2. Irregular rhythm
3. Uniform rhythm
4. Syncopation


When the harmonic interval between the Soprano & Tenor voice is a simple interval, close position occurs. When the harmonic interval between the Soprano & Tenor voices is a compound interval, open position occurs. The Bass voice is not considered in determining close or open position.

Harmonic intervals which occur between the Soprano & Alto or Alto & Tenor voices must be simple intervals. Compound intervals may occur between the Tenor & Bass voices.

The lowest note the Bass voice may have for a…
➢ Minor 6th is “G”
➢ Tritone is “B”
➢ 3rd is “C”
➢ Second is “E”

VOICE MOTION (normally described in terms of simple intervals)
INDIRECT MOTION: when two parts move in dissimilar directions
➢ Contrary Motion: indirect motion occurring when 2 parts move in opposite direction
➢ Oblique Motion: indirect motion when 1 part moves & another sustains/repeats

DIRECT MOTION: when two parts move in the same direction.
➢ Similar Motion: 2 parts move in same direction producing different harmonic intervals
➢ Parallel Motion: direct motion occurring when 2 parts move in same direction producing the same harmonic interval without regard for quality of the interval (M or m 3rd)

Note: indirect motion is generally preferred to direct motion

Some kinds of parallel motion destroy the 4 part texture: octaves unisons, perfect 5ths, & parallel dissonant intervals. Perfect 4ths are acceptable, but only in the upper 3 voices.

When 2 parts move in similar motion to a unison, perfect 5th or perfect octave, that movement is called hidden or covered. Hidden unisons are forbidden. Hidden perfect 5ths and perfect octaves may occur at any time except between the Soprano & Bass voices at a change of chord with the Soprano moving by disjunct motion.

Parallels by contrary motion occur when two voices move by contrary motion from one harmonic interval to the same harmonic interval. Parallel perfect octaves and parallel perfect fifths by contrary motion must not occur.

Crossed voices are not normally permited.

Overlapping voices are not normally permited.

Funk Jazz Bass Grove link
This guy has some interesting ideas and access to a lot of info on his site:

Tommy Igoe's Groove Essentials for Drum Set
Here's the link from the Vic Firth web site:

Tommy Igoe's Groove Essentials

PLAYATHON 2014Canby High School bands will be hosting their first entertainment fundraiser of the year, Playathon 2014. The event, 12 continuous hours of performance by the CHS bands, will be held on Oct. 4th in the CHS Fine Arts Auditorium and stadium; performance time is 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.

This year the Playathon, sponsored by the Canby Music Boosters, is focused on raising funds for the funding both clinicians to provide advanced instruction to the CHS bands as well as the purchase of new instruments. The Music Boosters have always been a significant source of financial support for the band program, and are especially important in the face of recent budget short-falls in education throughout Oregon. The goal of this year’s Playathon is to raise $5,000. The band is asking individual community members to sponsor a student to play for an hour or more. Any size donation is appreciated.

During the Playathon, the CHS Jazz Band, Concert Band, and Marching Band will be rehearsing for a total of 12 consecutive hours of music. The first to play will be the Concert Band from 8:00 a.m to Noon (auditorium), followed by the Jazz Band from Noon to 4:00 p.m. (auditorium), & ending with the Marching Band from 4:00 to 8:00 p.m. (at the CHS Stadium). As a bonus, spectators will have a chance to conduct a song for a minimum donation of $25 during the Marching Band’s time.
If you are interested in sponsoring a student, or would like any additional information about the Playathon, please feel free to call the Canby High School band director, Rob Rayfield at 503-263-7200, ext.5855 or check his blog at: http://blogs.canby.k12.or.us/rayfielr & look in the All Bands catagory.
THINGS TO KNOW: Week of 9/14/14
-Monday evening rehearsal from 6 - 9:00 p.m.

-Playing test on "Johnny" on Wednesday

-Friday evening rehearsal from 6 - 9:00 p.m.

The goal this week is to get "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy" memorized and on the field, and to clean "Johnny".
A. Pitch.....The number of sound waves per second produced by a sounding body is called “frequency”. When the frequency of vibration is regular, it is called “pitch”.
B. Intensity.....The magnitude of force or energy of regular or irregular vibration. Intensity, musically, is referred to as volume.
C. Duration.....The length of time of the vibration of sound waves.
D. Timbre.....The distinctive tone or quality of a singing voice or musical instrument. Also known as tone quality.

A. Grand Staff
B. Clefs
.....G: Treble
.....F: Bass
.....C: Alto, Tenor
C. Chromatic Symbols.....Sharp, double sharp, flat, double flat, natural
D. Enharmonic Equivalents.....the same pitch, written with a different name (e.g. C-sharp can be written as D-flat)
E. Note and Rest Values
.....Whole note.....4 beats in 4/4 time
.....Half note........2 beats in 4/4
.....Quarter note..1 beat in 4/4 1 2 3 4
.....Eight note......2 notes/beat in 4/4 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &
.....Sixteenth note..4 notes/beat in 4/4 1 e & a 2 e & a 3 e & a 4 e & a
.....Thirty-second note..8 notes/beat
.....Sixty-fourth note..16 notes/beat

A. Groupings

.....Duple.....metrical pulse establishes groups of two (e.g. 2/4, 2/2)
.....Triple.....metrical pulse establishes groups of three (e.g. 3/8, 3/4)
.....Quadruple.....metrical pulse establishes groups of four (e.g. 4/4)
B. Divisions
.....Simple.....beat is divisible by two (e.g. 2/4 or 3/4)
.....Compound.....beat is divisible by three (e.g. 6/8 or 9/8)
.....Composite.....beats are of unequal length (e.g. 5/4 or 7/8)

A. Types

.....Regular.....when long notes coincide with strong beats and shorter notes occur as non-syncopated divisions of weak beats
.....Irregular.....when long notes coincide with weak beats or weak parts of beats. Syncopation occurs when notes alter the normal or expected pattern of rhythm, accent, or meter by appearing on weak beats or weak parts of beats.
B. Altered Values
.....Dots.....Adds half the value of the note it follows
.....Staccato.....Shortens the note by half
.....Tenuto.....Full note value-no space between notes
.....Vertical Accent (inverted V).....Staccato plus accent

A. Chromatic (Formula in steps = ½, ½, ½, ½, etc.)
B. Major (Formula in steps = 1, 1, ½, 1, 1, 1, ½)
.....Circle of 5ths (4ths)
C. Minor
.....Natural (Formula = 1, ½, 1, 1, ½, 1, 1)
.....Harmonic (Formula = 1, ½, 1, 1, ½, 1 ½, ½)
.....Melodic (Formula Up = 1, ½, 1, 1, 1, 1, ½ Down = Natural minor)
D. Modes (Formula: assume an “all white key” scale starting on notes as shown)
.....Ionian starting on “C”
.....Dorian starting on “D”
.....Phrygian starting on “E”
.....Lydian starting on “F”
.....Mixolydian starting on “G”
.....Aeolian starting on “A”
.....Locrian starting on “B”
E. Pentatonic (Formula = 1, 1, 1 ½, 1, 1 ½)
F. Wholetone (Formula = 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1)

A. Perfect 4th, 5th, Octave e.g. C-F, C-G, C-C
B. Major 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th e.g. C-D, C-E, C-A, C-B
C. Minor 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th e.g. C-D flat, C-E flat, C-A flat, C-B flat
D. Augmented 4th, 5th e.g. C-F sharp, C-G sharp
E. Diminished 4th, 5th e.g. C-F flat, C-G flat

CHORDS are a combination of three or more different tones.
A. Construction
.....Triad: three tones spelled in thirds, e.g. Notes 1,3, and 5 in any scale
.....Extensions 6th, 7th, 9th, etc.
B. Quality
.....Consonant: Major & Minor
.....Dissonant: Augmented & Diminished

A sound source vibrates as a whole unit, in halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths, etc., continuing on indefinitely by fractions. The sounds these fractional vibrations produce are called overtones.
A. Overtone Series: begin on a fundamental pitch
B. Partials: the fundamental is also referred to as the 1st partial. It has the lowest frequency (pitch) and, commonly, the greatest amplitude (intensity)
C. Intonation: the 2nd and 5th overtones are slightly sharp; the 4th and 6th , overtones are 14 cents flat. The 10th overtone is very sharp.
D. Timbre: Because the physical nature of a musical instrument affects timbre, the relative prominence of overtones varies with different instruments and is a major factor in producing the timbre of a particular instrument. Usually, overtones are not heard as individual pitches, but as variations in the tone quality of the most prominent pitch, the fundamental.

A. By Scale Degree
B. By Interval
C. By Change of Key
D. Normal keys of instruments
.....Key of C: If one of the following instruments reads “C”, it sounds as “C”. (Flute, Piccolo, Piano, Marimba, Xylophone, Bells, Chimes, Bass clef instruments (trombone, baritone, tuba, timpani)
.....Key of B-flat If one of the following instruments reads “C”, it sounds as B-flat. (Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Tenor Sax, Trumpet, treble clef Baritone)
.....Key of E-flat If one of the following instruments reads “C”, it sounds as E-flat. (Alto Sax, Baritone Sax)
.....Key of F If one of the following instruments reads “C”, it sounds as “F”. (French Horn, English Horn)

The Elements of Music:

o Beat
o Dynamics
o Form
o Harmony
o Melody
o Rhythm
o Texture
o Tempo
o Timbre

Words which define form:
o Canon
o Da capo al fine
o Coda
o Fine
o Fugue
o Phrase
o Rondo
o Round
o Sonata
o 12-Bar Blues

Words which define Style:
o Accent
o Cantabile
o Dolce
o Legato
o Marcato
o Rubato
o Staccato

Words referring to Tempo:
o Accelerando
o Allegro
o Largo
o Ritardando

Words referring to Loud and Soft:
o Crescendo
o Diminuendo
o Forte
o Fortissimo
o Piano
o Pianissimo
o Mezzo forte
o Mezzo piano

Other Technical Terms:
o Articulation
o Chord
o Ensemble
o Fermata
o Improvisation
o Instrument Families
o Interval
o Meter
o Meter Signature
o Notation
o Note
o Pitch
o Range
o Scale
o Tonality

TRIMESTER..........1st Trimester only, 1st period, 2014-15
TEACHER.............Rob Rayfield
CONTACT INFO...Email: rayfielr@canby.k12.or.us Phone: 503-263-7200 x 5855
Classroom Expectations, Performance information, Assignments, Scope and Sequence and other class information can be found on my blog: http://blogs.canby.k12.or.us/rayfielr (Category: Concert Band)
OFFICE HOURS.....I am in my room at lunch and after school until 4:00 p.m. almost every day. Don’t hesitate to come in and ask for help, practice, or just work on your assignments.

The Concert Band is composed of CHS wind and percussion students from all grades who prefer concert work during the 1st trimester. This ensemble will focus on the performance of light concert and pep band music of various styles. The required performances for this trimester are Playathon 2014 on October 4th and pep band at two home football games. To improve the performance level of all band members, the band will periodically be divided into various sub-groups for sectional rehearsals to concentrate on improving their instrumental technique and for testing. It is the student’s responsibility to learn their assigned parts.
Performance at scheduled concerts and festivals is required, and part of the student's grade. Unexcused absence from a required performance cannot be made up, and will result in a "0" grade.

• In your seat with your instrument ready to play at the bell
• Maintain good rehearsal etiquette at all times
• No electronic devices at any time for any reason unless required by instructor
• No food or drink except water
• Disruptive behavior will result in disciplinary action

Students are expected be part of all required performances, and to complete and turn in work on time. Per CHS policy late work (including make-up work for excused absences from performances) will be accepted up to the final deadline specified at the time of assignment.

Student instruments (including mouthpieces & functional reeds) must be in class every day for rehearsal. District rental instruments are available for some low woodwinds, low brass and percussion instruments. The rental fee is $50.00 per school year (3 trimesters), and $25.00 for summer.
You must also provide a pencil, a three ring binder with page protectors, and concert attire (tuxes are provided by the school).

Attendance is essential for success. The following will apply for an unexcused tardy or absence:
1) Verbal warning to student
2) Communication with parent(s) & student (documented in grade book)
3) Communication with parent(s), student, & counselor (documented in grade book,
may include classroom discipline)
4) Referral to Student Center
Each student is responsible for all material covered in class whether the student was present or not.

Standards-based grading communicates how students perform on a set of clearly defined learning targets called standards. The purpose of standards-based grading is to identify what students know and are able to do in relation to pre-established learning targets. The traditional averaging of grades can mask what students have learned, or not learned, in a specific course.
Students are graded based on acquired knowledge of the Oregon Content Standards and Common Core State Standards. Students will be graded under two categories: formative and summative assessments. Formative assessments are used for learning. Examples might be quizzes, exit slips, homework, etc. They let students, parents and teachers know how a student is progressing in his/her learning. Summative assessments are assessments of learning. Examples might be unit exams, essays, etc. They let students, parents and teachers know what a student has learned when instruction is over.

Standards-based report cards separate academic performance from work habits and behavior in order to provide parents a more accurate view of a student’s progress in both academic and behavioral areas. Variables such as effort, participation, timeliness, cooperation, attitude, and attendance are reported separately, not as an indicator of a student’s academic performance. Behavior can no longer be a factor in determining students’ academic grades and will be reported out separately in the “Comments” section of the report card.

Grading Scale
A+ 99 – 100% C+ 79%
A 92 – 98% C 72 – 78%
A- 90 – 91% C- 70 – 71%
B+ 89% D+ 69%
B 82 – 88% D 62 – 68%
B- 80 – 81% D- 60 – 61%
F Below 60%

Student grades will be determined by the scores earned from the following:
• Formative Assessments will represent 20% of a student's grade. Summative assessments will represent 80% of a student's grade.
• Student's performance at required band performances (summative)
o Unexcused absence from a performance cannot be made up
• Performance evaluations and/or written tests on:
o Required Scales (formative)
• Concert scales: Major scales in C (and A minor), F , B-flat, E-flat, G, D, and A
o Basic Music Theory including the structure of scales and musical terms (formative)
o Various Basic Rhythms (formative)
Practice: Documentation of practice is not required, but the results of practice will be measured in formative and summative assessments.

• “Foundations for Superior Performance” by Richard Williams & Jeff King
• “66 Festive and Famous Chorales for Band” arranged by Frank Erickson
• Pep band selections in various styles contained in the CHS Pep Band List
• Music Theory booklet (handout)
• SmartMusic software
• Concert music to be selected